Databases / Websites

American Gem Trade Association

ARC Centre of Excellence | Coral Reef Studies

Atlas of Living Australia

Australian Museum

California Academy of Sciences | iNaturalist

College of Exploration

Coral Digest

Coral Reef Alliance

Coral Trait Database

Fish Base

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

Monaco Nature Encyclopedia

NASA | Jet Propulsion Laboratory | California Institute of Technology

National Geographic Society | Science

National Parks Service

NOAA | Fisheries

NOAA | National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science (NCCOS)

NOAA | Ocean Service

Online Etymology Dictionary

Quality Marine


SeaLife Base


Smithsonian Institution

Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History

Smithsonian Ocean Portal

UC Berkeley | UC Museum of Paleontology

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)

United Nations Environment Programme

University of California, San Diego | Scripps Institution of Oceanography

University of Florida | Florida Museum of Natural History

University of Hawai’i at Mānoa - Department of Botany | Corals of National Park of American Samoa

University of Hawai’i at Mānoa - Coastal Geology Group

University of Michigan | Animal Diversity Web

University of Warwick | Coralpedia

University of Washington | Digital Collections

Veron 2000, Corals of the World

World Register of Marine Species (WORMS)

World Wildlife Fund for Nature


Andréfouët, S., & Cabioch, G. (2011). Barrier Reef (Ribbon Reef). Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs, 102–107.


Babcock, R. C., Wills, B. L., & Simpson, C. J. (1994). Mass spawning of corals on a high latitude coral reef. Coral Reefs, 13(3), 161–169.


Babcock, R. C. (1984). Reproduction and Distribution of Two Species of Goniastrea (Scleractinia) from the Great Barrier Reef Province. Coral Reefs, 2, 187-195.


Bachtiar, I. (2001). Reproduction of three scleractinian corals (Acropora cytherea, A. nobilis, Hydnophora rigida) in eastern Lombok Strait, Indonesia. Ilmu Kelautan (Indonesian Journal of Marine Sciences). 6, 18-27.


Cabioch, G., Wallace, C. C., McCulloch, M. T., Zibrowius, H., Laboute, P., & de Forges, B. R. (2011). Disappearance of Acropora from the Marquesas (French Polynesia) during the last deglacial period. Coral Reefs, 30(4), 1101–1105.


Cairns, S. D. (2011). Global Diversity of the Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Athecatae). PLoS ONE, 6(7), e21670.


Cau, A., Bramanti, L., Cannas, R., Follesa, M. C., Angiolillo, M., Canese, S., Bo, M., Cuccu, D., & Guizien, K. (2016). Habitat constraints and self-thinning shape Mediterranean red coral deep population structure: implications for conservation practice. Scientific Reports, 6(1).


Cordes, E. E., McGinley, M. P., Podowski, E. L., Becker, E. L., Lessard-Pilon, S., Viada, S. T., & Fisher, C. R. (2008). Coral communities of the deep Gulf of Mexico. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 55(6), 777–787.


de Oliveira Soares, M., Davis, M., & de Macêdo Carneiro, P. B. (2016). Northward range expansion of the invasive coral (Tubastraea tagusensis) in the southwestern Atlantic. Marine Biodiversity, 48(3), 1651–1654.


Dixson, D. L., & Hay, M. E. (2012). Corals Chemically Cue Mutualistic Fishes to Remove Competing Seaweeds. Science, 338(6108), 804–807.


Fabricius, K. E., Okaji, K., & De’ath, G. (2010). Three lines of evidence to link outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns seastar Acanthaster planci to the release of larval food limitation. Coral Reefs, 29(3), 593–605.


Floros, C. (2013). Field Note: First observation of Acropora robusta (Dana, 1846) on the high-latitude coral reefs of South Africa: A species range extension. Western Indian Ocean Journal of Marine Science, 11(2), 209.


Forsgren, K. L., & Lowe, C. G. (2006). The life history of weedy seadragons, Phyllopteryx taeniolatus (Teleostei:Syngnathidae). Marine and Freshwater Research, 57(3), 313.


Gold, Z., & Palumbi, S. R. (2018). Long-term growth rates and effects of bleaching in Acropora hyacinthus. Coral Reefs, 37(1), 267–277.


Gosliner, T. M., Valdés, Á., & Behrens, D. (2015). Nudibranch & Sea Slug Identification: Indo-Pacific. New World Publications, Inc.


Guckelsberger, M. (2013, December). Purple Murex Dye in Antiquity. University of Iceland.


Guzman, C., Atrigenio, M., Shinzato, C., Aliño, P., & Conaco, C. (2019). Warm seawater temperature promotes substrate colonization by the blue coral, Heliopora coerulea. PeerJ, 7, e7785.


Hebbeln, D., Portilho-Ramos, R. da C., Wienberg, C., & Titschack, J. (2019). The Fate of Cold-Water Corals in a Changing World: A Geological Perspective. Frontiers in Marine Science, 6.


Hoeksema, B. W., & Bongaerts, P. (2015). Mobility and self-righting by a free-living mushroom coral through pulsed inflation. Marine Biodiversity, 46(2), 521–524.


Knop, D., Hert, E., & Holzberg, S. (1996). Giant Clams: A Comprehensive Guide to the Identification and Care of Tridacnid Clams. Two Little Fishies Incorporated.


Kusmita, L., Mutiara, E. V., Nuryadi, H., Pratama, P. A., Wiguna, A. S., & Radjasa, O. K. (2017). Characterization of carotenoid pigments from bacterial symbionts of soft-coral Sarcophyton sp. from North Java Sea. International Aquatic Research, 9(1), 61–69.


Meyer-Rochow V.B., Penrose J. (1976). Sound production by the Western rock lobster Panulirus longipes. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 23, 191–210.


Nakabayashi, A., Yamakita, T., Nakamura, T., Aizawa, H., Kitano, Y. F., Iguchi, A., Yamano, H., Nagai, S., Agostini, S., Teshima, K. M., & Yasuda, N. (2019). The potential role of temperate Japanese regions as refugia for the coral Acropora hyacinthus in the face of climate change. Scientific Reports. 9(1).


Neo, M. L., Eckman, W., Vicentuan, K., Teo, S. L.-M., & Todd, P. A. (2015). The ecological significance of giant clams in coral reef ecosystems. Biological Conservation, 181, 111–123.


O’Kane, C. (2019, May 13). American breaks record with deepest submarine dive ever, finds plastic waste. CBS News.


Pinsky, M. L., Eikeset, A. M., McCauley, D. J., Payne, J. L., & Sunday, J. M. (2019). Greater vulnerability to warming of marine versus terrestrial ectotherms. Nature, 569(7754), 108–111.


Richards, Z. T., Yasuda, N., Kikuchi, T., Foster, T., Mitsuyuki, C., Stat, M., Suyama, Y., & Wilson, N. G. (2018). Integrated evidence reveals a new species in the ancient blue coral genus Heliopora (Octocorallia). Scientific Reports, 8(1).


Saxby, T., Dennison, W., & Hoegh-Guldberg, O. (2003). Photosynthetic responses of the coral Montipora digitata to cold temperature stress. Marine Ecology Progress Series, 248, 85–97.


Smithers, S. (2011). Fringing Reefs. Encyclopedia of Modern Coral Reefs, 430–446.


Turner, J. (2002). Zooplankton fecal pellets, marine snow and sinking phytoplankton blooms. Aquatic Microbial Ecology, 27, 57–102.


Veron, J. E. N. (John Edward Norwood) & Veron, J. E. N. (John Edward Norwood) & Australian Institute of Marine Science (1986). Corals of Australia and the Indo-Pacific. Angus & Robertson, London ; Sydney.


Vollmer, S. V. (2002). Hybridization and the Evolution of Reef Coral Diversity. Science, 296(5575), 2023–2025.


Wallace, C. C., & Muir, P. R. (2005). Biodiversity of the Indian Ocean from the perspective of staghorn corals (Acropora spp). Indian Journal of Marine Sciences. 34(1), 42-49.


Wing, B. L., & Barnard, D. R. (2004). A field guide to Alaskan corals. NOAA Technical Memorandum. U.S. Department of Commerce. NMFS-AFSC-146, 67p.


Wong, K. T., Ng, T. Y., Tsang, R. H. L., & Ang, P. (2017). First observation of the nudibranch Tenellia feeding on the scleractinian coral Pavona decussata. Coral Reefs, 36(4), 1121.